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Sep 22, 2011

Punjab National Bank Examination Questions - English

Directions—(Q. 1–15) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. 

As the price of gasoline spiked to record highs in 2007 and 2008, interest in alternatives to fossil fuels, and electric transportation in particular, also spiked. It raised, however, many questions about the true environmental impact of electric cars.
The electric car is being upheld as an ethical, green, nifty and cheap alternative to the carbon dioxideemitting automobiles clogging city roads around the world today. Though electric cars are not a popular choice, the industry’s future plans are riding high on the hope that on improving certain factors, (which are currently deficient) such as, effective marketing, a growing public awareness of the need for clean air and the increase in demand, the prices would eventually be driven down.
However, battery powered vehicles may still fail to completely replace liquid fuel-fed ones but with more electric and hybrid vehicles on the road, there is greater scope for a makeover in the way environment is impacted by the automobiles. However, if the power to charge the battery-operated vehicle is to be sourced from grids using conventional coal-fired power plants, the electric car wouldn’t really be all that green. These would actually cause an increase in demand on the power plant’s energy production causing them to produce more power and thus more pollution, unless greener ways of energy production are used. But as of now the bulk of the electricity used to charge the batteries of electric vehicles is generated by fossil fuel burning power stations and only 12% by the clean methods. Also, the amount of energy used by coal fired power stations to create the electricity to recharge electric vehicles make them half as efficient as diesel cars. Recent studies indicate that carbon emissions may reduce only by an insignificant level even if there is a sudden surge in demand for electric cars.
Other factors making the rechargeable cars less efficient include the amount of electricity lost in the journey between the coal fired power stations which generate it and the point where it recharges the car, and the energy lost by the faulty first generation batteries and motors. The researchers calculated that of the energy burned in a power station, only a quarter reaches an electric car after leakages and losses along the supply chain, giving the vehicle an energy efficiency score of 24%. This amounts to more than 75% energy loss much before the car is even put on ignition. A modern diesel engine, by contrast, achieves 45% efficiency. This suggests that if fossil fuels are to be burned, it is much more efficient to do it within the engine of a vehicle rather than at a power station and then try to send it via the National Grid, where a lot of energy is wasted, and finally to store it in a battery which in itself might leak power.
Electric cars may still survive since the car’s emissions would be far less polluting than those that run on fossil fuels. With very minor emissions of sulphur caused when the batteries charge and discharge, when compared to current emissions standards, electric cars are zero emissions. The gasoline engine by comparison does not fare as well. Gasoline and diesel fuel burned in internal combustion engines for transportation account for 54 per cent of nitrites of oxygen, 89 per cent of carbon monoxide and 28 per cent of carbon dioxide pollution produced. Switching to electric vehicles drops those percentages to zero, and only slightly increases sulphur emissions. So even when the power plants burn dirty fuel, the amount of pollution is less than an oil burning car would create. And this picture is improving all the time, as clean energy sources are added to the grid.
The goal should be to make more electric cars with greater incentive for consumers and producers, as well as feeding grids with more power from renewable resources–as per the objectives stated in the numerous plans on Climate Changes. And till this goal is achieved, the debate whether controlling emission at a few power plants is more convenient than controlling emission at millions of tailpipes is, would continue.

Q1. Why does the author fear that the electric cars may eventually not be very eco-friendly ?
(A) The exhausts of these cars emit as much pollutants as the oil fuelled cars
(B) Electric cars, though have lesser quantity of other emissions, the sulphur emissions will rise substantially, thus harming the environment
(C) The electricity for charging the batteries of these cars comes from power plants using pollution causing fossil fuels
(D) Only (A) and (C)
(E) None of these

Q2. What, according to the author, needs to be done in order to make electric cars more ecofriendly ?
(A) Encouraging powerplants to generate electricity using the eco-friendly methods
(B) Setting certain emission standards for electric cars as is done for the oil consuming cars
(C) Controlling Sulphur emissions which are one of the major contributors to environmental pollution at present
(D) Making provisions for easy availability of recharging sockets at all the places
(E) None of these

Q3. Which of the following suggestions does the author make in order to popularize the electric cars ?
(A) Discontinue the use of fuel powered cars completely
(B) Optimize the benefits of using electric cars to both consumers as well as the producers
(C) To supply grids with renewable sources of energy for the production of electricity
(D) Only (B) and (C)
(E) None of these
Q4. Why, according to the author, are electric cars not a popular option among the people ?
(1) The recharging points are not easily available everywhere.
(2) Effective marketing of the eco-friendly cars has been lacking.
(3) Lack of appreciation among the people for the need of unpolluted air.
(A) Only (1) and (3)
(B) Only (2) and (3)
(C) Only (1) and (2)
(D) All (1), (2) and (3)
(E) None of these

Q5. Why, according to the author, may the electric cars survive despite all their current deficiencies ?
(1) Electric cars will be subsidised and thus would prove to be cost efficient to the buyers.
(2) An increasing number of grids are shifting to alternate forms of energy production.
(3) In the future, incentives would be provided to those driving electric cars.
(4) Pollution caused by the electric cars is far less as compared to the fossil fuel driven cars.
(A) Only (1)
(B) Only (3) and (4)
(C) Only (2) and (4)
(D) Only (1) and (2)
(D) None of these

Q6. Which of the following can be the most appropriate title for the passage ?
(A) The failure of the power grids
(B) The rise and fall of cars using fossil fuels
(C) The adverse effects of pollution caused by the power grids
(D) The growing popularity of the electric cars
(E) Why eco-friendliness of electric cars is a fiction at present

Q7. Which of the following can be inferred from the given passage?
(A) Electric car may completely replace the fossil fuel powered cars one day
(B) Electric cars have brought about a drastic improvement in the pollution levels at present
(C) Electric cars have universally been accepted as the environment friendly cars
(D) All (A), (B) and (C) are true
(E) None of these

Q8. Which of the following is NOT TRUE in context of the given passage ?
(A) Nearly three-fourth of the total energy generated for powering electric cars is wasted
(B) The interest in electric cars increased during the last year when most of the power grids shifted to clean sources of fuel
(C) Electric car engines do not produce by carbon emissions
(D) There would not be any noticeable improvement in the pollution level if the oil burning cars are shifted to electric cars at present
(E) None of these

Q9. Why, according to the author, is the efficienty of the electric cars low even before they actually hit the roads ?
(1) Alot of energy is lost during the transit of electricity fromthe grid to the recharge point.
(2) The manufacturing cost of the electric cars is much higher than that of the other cars.
(3) The batteries and the motors of the electric cars are still relatively new and waste a lot of power.
(A) Only (1) and (3)
(B) Only (2) and (3)
(C) Only (2)
(D) Only (1) and (2)
(E) None of these

Directions—(Q. 10–12) Choose the word / group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning. 

(A) Situation
(B) Photograph
(C) Representation
(D) Art work
(E) Idea

(A) Eating
(B) Supplying
(C) Consuming
(D) Encouraging
(E) Nourishing

(A) Alteration
(B) Modification
(C) Intensification
(D) Increase
(E) Evolution

Directions—(Q. 13–15) Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in MEANING. 

(A) Adequately
(B) Miserly
(C) Certainly
(D) Remotely
(E) Substantially

(A) Prolonging
(B) Withdrawing
(C) Continuing
(D) Exchanging
(E) Alternating

(A) Deterrents
(B) Preventions
(C) Disadvantages
(D) Prohibitions
(E) Liability

Directions—(Q. 16–25) Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error if any will be in one part of the sentence, the letter of that part will be the answer. If there is no error, mark (E) as the answer. (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any.)

Q16. Sheela had to travel all the way back (A) / when she remembered that (B) / she had forgot to take (C) / important documents with her. (D) No error (E)

Q17. The party is holding a meeting (A) / in order to begin the (B) / painful and difficult process (C) / of rethink its political strategy. (D) No error (E)

Q18. The only bad thing about (A) / these flowers are the (B) / pollen which causes (C) / allergy in many people. (D) No error (E)

Q19. Nobody in the bus (A) / offered to give their seat (B) / to the elderly lady who had to (C) / travel a long distance. (D) No error (E)

Q20. This is the only organization (A) / which could somehow continue (B) / to making profits (C) / in the face of recession. (D) No error (E)

Q21. Many more would have died (A) / if they hadn’t received (B) / the timely helping from (C) / the relief team. (D) No error (E)

Q22. A man along with (A) / his wife and two children (B) / were rescued with the help (C) / of an army helicopter. (D) No error (E)

Q23. In the past two decades, (A) / preventive measures have (B) / drastically reduced the (C) / occurrence of polio in children. (D) No error (E)

Q24. Neither the ministers (A) / nor the intelligence sources (B) / was aware of the coup (C) / being planned in the country. (D) No error (E)

Q25. Certain amounts of stress (A) / at work is natural but (B) / it is important that one learns (C) / to keep it in the right proportion. (D) No error (E)

Directions—(Q. 26–30) Which of the phrases (A), (B), (C) and (D) given below each statement should replace the phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct ? If the sentence is correct as it is given and ‘No correction is required’, mark (E) as the answer.

Q26. An NGO is working towards providing free education to the girl child so that every girl can stand on their own feet.
(A) stands on their own
(B) stand on her own
(C) stand in her own
(D) stand on their own’s
(E) No correction required

Q27. The animal rescuers anesthetized the dog which had been with great pain after having met with an accident.
(A) which had been in
(B) which is being with
(C) who had been in
(D) who has been at
(E) No correction required

Q28. In its final decision, the court ruled that all the allegations levelled for the accused were false and baseless.
(A) allegation levelled against the
(B) allegations level against that
(C) allegations levelled against the
(D) allegations levelled with that
(E) No correction required

Q29. If I leave early from home, I could have made it on time to the airport.
(A) If I would leave early
(B) Had I leave earlier
(C) If I could left early
(D) had I left earlier
(E) No correction required

Q30. Thousands of fire-fighters were deployed at the factory when a fire suddenly broke out due to a short circuit.
(A) on the factory when
(B) at the factory while
(C) at that factory when
(D) in the factory while
(E) No correction required

Directions—(Q. 31–35) Rearrange the following sentences 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 to make a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions which follow :
1. This decision on which force is to be maximized lies with every individual.
2. This belief comes from the fact that science reflects the social forces prevailing at a particular time.
3. We must maximize the constructive forces of science and the destructive ones should be minimized.
4. Contrary to popular belief, the greatest enemy of mankind is not science but war.
5. She/he must understand that science can only help us in providing ways to reach at either war or peace and is actually not responsible for causing these.
6. During peaceful times science is constructive and during war, science is perverted to destructive ends.

Q31. Which of the following sentence should be the SIXTH (LAST) after rearrangement ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
(E) 5

Q32. Which of the following sentence should be the THIRD after rearrangement ?
(A) 1
(B) 5
(C) 6
(D) 4
(E) 3

Q33. Which of the following sentence should be the FIFTH after rearrangement ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 5
(E) 6

Q34. Which of the following sentence should be the FIRST after rearrangement ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
(E) 5

Q35. Which of the following sentence should be the SECOND after rearrangement ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 4
(D) 5
(E) 6

Directions—(Q. 36–45) In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words/phrases are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word/phrase in each case.

Asteroids are rocks and debris which are the leftovers of the construction of our solar system. Most are in a belt, which …(36)… between Mars and Jupiter. However, the gravitational influence of the giant planets, like Jupiter, or an impact by a comet can knock these large rocks out of their orbit, thus hurling them …(37)… the Earth. Many bodies have struck Earth in the …(38)…, and a widely accepted theory blames the impact of an asteroid for the exinction of dinosaurs about 65 million years ago. The scale of such a disaster can be understood by the example of a relatively small-size asteroid strike in Siberia in early 20th century which …(39)… more than half a million acres of forest. However, what relieves the common man of the …(40)… regarding asteroid impact is the fact that many scientific groups are dedicated towards tracking the asteroid paths and orbit all around the year. With advanced equipment and technology, they can predict any upcoming danger much in …(41)…. According to them the chances of finding such an asteroid crossing Earth in this or the next five generation’s lifetime is only one in thousands. Even if such an asteroid is found out, there will be …(42)… of time to track it, measure its orbit precisely, and plan a system for …(43)… it from its orbit away from that of the Earth’s. There will be no great hurry, and no great panic. It would be a project for all the world’s nations to take part in. It could be a globally unifying event. Because it will be …(44)… long before it actually hits the Earth. It probably would take only a small measure such as chemical rockets, or perhaps an atomic explosion to divert it from a threatening path. Thus, in short, it can be said that though the impact would pose enormous risk to all living forms on Earth, the odds of it occurring within our lifetimes is very …(45)… and it is unnecessary to run around believing that the sky is falling.

Q36. (A) rotates
(B) appears
(C) strikes
(D) encircle
(E) exists

Q37. (A) past
(B) around
(C) towards
(D) against
(E) inside

Q38. (A) future
(B) centuries
(C) earliest
(D) past
(E) history

Q39. (A) extinct
(B) devastated
(C) wasted
(D) shrivelled
(E) fell

Q40. (A) apprehension
(B) expectation
(C) distrust
(D) sufferings
(E) hesitation

Q41. (A) sooner
(B) accuracy
(C) advance
(D) time
(E) distance

Q42. (A) dearth
(B) loss
(C) most
(D) lack
(E) plenty

Q43. (A) blocking
(B) deflecting
(C) avoiding
(D) destroying
(E) changing

Q44. (A) experienced
(B) harmful
(C) perceived
(D) noticed
(E) devastating

Q45. (A) low
(B) large
(C) narrow
(D) high
(E) few

Directions—(Q. 46–50) Each question below has two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Q46. After having been friends for more than a decade, they had a ……… last year and have not ……… each other ever since.
(A) fight, talked
(B) argument, met
(C) dispute, seen
(D) quarrel, admired
(E) difference, introduced

Q47. The workers, several of ………had complained about their low wages earlier have now ……… to move the court for the labour rights.
(A) who, indicated
(B) whom, decided
(C) which, threatened
(D) them, resolved
(E) number, warmed

Q48. The hutment dwellers were jubilant when the government ……… an apartment to each of them at ……… rates.
(A) demolished, fast
(B) announced, less
(C) provided, high
(D) acquired, low
(E) promised, subsidised

Q49. The organization was deeply …………by difficulties a decade ago but the new CEO brought many ……… changes in it and took it to a new high.
(A) indebted, necessary
(B) plagued, vital
(C) coping, more
(D) hurt, critical
(E) shaken, inevitable

Q50. The prime minister who is ……… in his holiday home at the moment said that he was very ……… by the news of India winning the world cup.
(A) visiting, happy
(B) residing, obliged
(C) intruding, dejected
(D) staying, pleased
(E) resting, cheerful
Punjab National Bank Examination Questions - English